Difference makes the DIFFERENCE
Content - List
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He emphasised on right employee to the right job and right place, effective supervision of working conditions and worker. He noted that Maximum prosperity of the EMPLOYER is twined with maximum prosperity of EMPLOYEE. This principle, which we now boast of is "Employee First".
He proposed four basic principles of Scientific Management, where he emphasised on close relationship between the supervisor and employee.
The origin of thought and expression started with these thinkers. These thinkers understood that, administration has become a dominant concern, as population grows, it will be unmanageable, without proper administration, thus leading to choas in the society. Woodrow Wilson called "multitudinous monarch" called Public Opinion. Principles are either borrowed or formulated, to suit their situations.
Proposed, formulated and took pain in making the administrative staff, understand and adhere to certain discipline to run an organisation.
The following are some of the POINEER thinkers, in the field of administration.
This is a very brief overview, just to let know, how the concepts of administration evolved and corresponding shift in thinking.
We cannot move
(1856-1924, President of USA - 1913).
He identifed that before 19th century, people were in manageable numbers and hence no pressing demand for administration, but later on, situation changed and became un-manageable, but by then, French and German administration had strong governance. He forced himself to borrow those principles, but was afraid of cultural impact. so he quoted his famous line, supporting his view: if I see a murderous fellow, sharpening his knife cleverly, I can borrow his method of sharpening knife without borrowing his style of committing murder. He also aptly identified the inherent deficiency in system and said it is far easier to frame a constitution than to run one. He emphasised that administration cannot be on the principles of philosophy, but on historical and comparative methods of administration. Governance should be seperated from administration, where, Governance basically deals with developing principles of administration and Administration deals with implemnting the principles of Governance. Also, he realised that, every 10 years, there would be demanding change in Governing principles.
The original credit of
methods in Management
goes to the Greeks,
however, Fayol and
Frederick Taylor refined these methods into management practices.
Fayol is the founder of Management Process School. He is greatly influenced by Cartesian Philosophy and Adam Smiths views on Division of Labour.
He introduced the principle of POCCC (Planning, Organisation, Command, Co-ordination, Control) which later on was reduced to PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) is later adopted in Six-Sigma methodologies. He strongly suggests that the attributes of Manager should be: 1.Physical, 2.Mental, 3.Moral, 4.General Education, 5.Special Knowledge and 6.Experience.
He deviced 14 principles of management, the principle of 'gangplank' which is level-jumping in heirarchical organisations (simply called skipping the current level). He strongly emphasised 'Unity of Command', which is also called the line of authority and 'Unity of Direction'. He strongly emphasised that authority and responsibility whould be in equal measure, without which the system fails.
(German, born on 20
Mar 1856 - ) is not only
considered as Father of
Scientific Management but also considered as poineer in Modern Management
Techniques and Approaches. His papers include Art of Cutting Metals, Principles of Scientific Management Piece-Rate System (an outstanding paper among his contributions, helpful in wage payment. This paper is out of his exhaustive experiments of over 30,000, for a span of 25yrs, at about a cost of 2,00,000USD, this paper is revolutionary in the development of American Industry).
(German, born in
1864) name is
He enjoys a distinct
place in the universe of
Social Thinkers. His theories on legitimacy and domination forms basis for number of other theories and studies in various geographies. Weber always preferred experimental and experiential knowledge rather than library research.
Unification of Germany under Bismark and the elimination of middle-class convinced Weber, that, great goals can only be achieved through Power Politics.